Journal retraction of Séralini GMO study is invalid and an attack on scientific integrity

  • Reason given for retraction - "inconclusiveness" - is unprecedented and violates norms of scientific publishing
  • It is unjustifiable to retract an entire paper because it contains some "inconclusive" findings
  • Conclusive findings are rare in science
  • Attack on scientific integrity could put public health at risk
  • Study must be reinstated

We, the undersigned international scientists and experts, condemn the retraction1 by Dr A. Wallace Hayes, the editor-in-chief of the scientific journal Food and Chemical Toxicology (FCT), of the pioneering study of Séralini et al. (2012) on a genetically modified (GM) maize and its associated pesticide, Roundup.

Dr Hayes, FCT, and the journal’s publisher Elsevier must reinstate the Séralini study and provide a full public apology to Professor Séralini and his team.

The study’s findings

Séralini and colleagues’ chronic toxicity rat feeding study is the first and only long-term investigation of the effects of this particular type of GM maize (called NK603) and low levels of the herbicide Roundup, which the maize is engineered to tolerate during cultivation. The study found severe organ damage, particularly to the liver, kidneys and pituitary gland, in rats fed the GM maize and/or low levels of Roundup in their diet. Additional unexpected observations were higher rates of large palpable tumours and mortality in most treatment groups.2

Retraction decision reached in non-transparent process

The decision to retract the paper was reached through a nontransparent, second review process involving a panel of unnamed persons3 of unknown professional competence and with undisclosed potential conflicts of interest. The decision was announced over a year after the paper had passed through the original peer review process and was published.

Retraction violates norms of scientific publishing

According to the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE), of which FCT is a member,4 retraction of a paper is reserved for cases of "unreliable" findings due to misconduct or honest error, redundant publication or plagiarism, and unethical research.5

However, none of these criteria apply to the Séralini paper, as Dr Hayes conceded in a letter to Professor Séralini. Dr Hayes stated that an examination of Professor Séralini’s raw data had revealed "no evidence of fraud or intentional misrepresentation" and results presented were "not incorrect".

Dr Hayes added that the retraction was solely based on the “inconclusive” nature of the tumours and mortality outcomes, based on the relatively low number of animals and the strain of rat used.6 Dr Hayes later wrote in a statement: “No definitive conclusions could be drawn from the inconclusive data”.7

However, lack of definitive conclusions is not valid grounds for retraction. Retraction on these grounds appears to be unprecedented in the history of scientific publishing.

Retracting a whole paper on grounds of inconclusiveness of some of its findings is unjustified

According to widely accepted norms, Séralini’s study did not use sufficient numbers of animals for a carcinogenicity study.8 Therefore the questions raised by the observations of tumours and mortality can only be resolved by replicating and extending the study with larger numbers of animals, as suggested by Séralini’s team in their "Answers to critics", also published in FCT.9

However, contrary to how it is presented by critics, Séralini’s study is not a flawed carcinogenicity study. It was designed as a chronic toxicity investigation, as the authors state in the title and introduction to their paper. The study generated statistically significant findings of organ damage and biochemical disturbances in treatment groups. These toxicity findings form the most important aspect of the study and are solidly based. They have important implications for public health. 

Dr Hayes conceded in his statement that "the number of animals used may have been sufficient to reach conclusions regarding oral toxicity".10 Yet he has retracted the entire paper on the basis of the alleged inconclusive nature of some of its findings, namely the tumour and mortality rates. He has not offered any explanation of why the toxicity findings, as well as the tumours and mortality observations, should be erased from the scientific record. We contend that they must remain in the scientific literature to inform further studies.

FCT editor defends decision by misrepresenting the paper

On 10 December 2013 Dr Hayes defended his decision to retract the study in a published statement.11 In this statement, Dr Hayes appeared to contradict his previous statement in his letter to Prof Séralini that the results were "not incorrect".12 He now maintained that the retraction was in line with the COPE guidelines, since the Séralini paper was an example of unreliable findings due to "honest error". Dr Hayes wrote:

"The data are inconclusive, therefore the claim (ie, conclusion) that Roundup Ready maize NK603 and/or the Roundup herbicide have a link to cancer is unreliable… it is the entire paper, with the claim that there is a definitive link between GMO and cancer that is being retracted."13

However, this is a misrepresentation of Séralini’s paper. The authors do not claim that the GM maize NK603 and/or Roundup herbicide have a "definitive link" to "cancer". Moreover, the authors specify in their introduction that the study is not a carcinogenicity study.

Instead, the authors simply observe and record the rates and timing of tumours (which are not, by definition, synonymous with "cancer") in the various groups of animals. This is in line with the international norm of the OECD chronic toxicity guideline 452, which requires that in a chronic toxicity study, all "lesions" (which would include tumours) are noted.14

Dr Hayes does not specifically identify any unjustified or "definitive" claims in the paper. If he is able to identify any such claims, then, under COPE guidelines, this would justify requesting the authors to publish a correction or clarification.15 It would not justify retraction of the paper.

Conclusive findings are rare in science

The notion that a pioneering study must produce conclusive results is incompatible with the way in which scientific progress occurs. Retrospectively applying a previously unknown standard of mandatory conclusiveness to all scientific papers would decimate the existing scientific literature, discourage innovative research, and impede understanding of complex issues.

In his letter to Prof Séralini, Dr Hayes states that the results of the study, because of their inconclusive nature, "do not reach the threshold of publication for Food and Chemical Toxicology". It is now incumbent on Dr Hayes to prove that all other studies published in FCT reach a higher standard of conclusiveness, or to retract them, also. Alternatively, Dr Hayes must reinstate the Séralini paper and apologise for its retraction.

Retraction compromises scientific integrity and could put public health at risk

Scientific uncertainties are only clarified by further research. Removing Séralini’s paper from the scientific record in this apparently unprecedented manner is antithetical to scientific progress. It also sends an unmistakable message to other researchers exploring the potential risks of GM crops and their associated pesticides: to the effect that their scientific research may not be funded or published, that their professional and personal reputations could be attacked, and that their careers could be ruined. Moreover, erasing the evidence provided by the Séralini study could potentially put at risk the health of people, livestock, and the environment.

The retraction of the Séralini paper sets a dangerous precedent. Retrospectively applying previously unstated criteria to this paper alone, and doing so more than a year after publication, appears to be an act of scientific censorship. It runs counter to the interests of science, scientists, and the public at large.

Dr Hayes, FCT, and Elsevier must reinstate the Séralini study and provide a full public apology to Professor Séralini and his team. 

Signed by: (179)

Michael Antoniou, PhD
Head, Gene Expression and Therapy Group, King’s College London School of Medicine, UK

John Balatinecz, PhD
Professor Emeritus, Faculty of Forestry, University of Toronto, Canada 

Susan Bardocz, DSc
Retired Professor of Human Nutrition, formerly at the Rowett Research Institute, Aberdeen, Scotland

Marie-Pierre Baudin-Maurin
Assistant Professor, Private Law Research Center, Law Department, University of Caen, France

Philip L. Bereano, JD
Professor Emeritus, University of Washington; Roster of Experts, Cartagena Biosafety Protocol

Thomas Bøhn, Dr Scient
Senior Scientist, GenØk – Centre for Biosafety; Professor of Gene Ecology, Faculty of Health Sciences, UiT The Arctic University of Norway; former member of the Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety

Marcello Buiatti, PhD
Professor of Genetics, University of Florence, Italy

E. Ann Clark, PhD
Professor of Plant Agriculture (retired), University of Guelph, Canada

Joe Cummins, PhD
Professor Emeritus of Genetics, University of Western Ontario, Canada

Michael Dittmar, PhD
ETH (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology) Physics Department, Zurich, Switzerland 

Paul Dorfman, PhD
Honorary Senior Research Associate at the Energy Institute, University College London (UCL), UK; Joseph Rowntree Charitable Trust (JRCT) Nuclear Policy Research Fellow; Member, European Network of Scientists for Social and Environmental Responsibility (ENSSER); Advisor to the UK Ministry of Defence (MoD) Nuclear Submarine Dismantling Project (SDP); Member, European Nuclear Energy Forum (ENEF) Transparency and Risk Working Groups

David Gee
Retired Senior Adviser, Science, Policy, Emerging Issues, European Environment Agency, Copenhagen; Fellow of Collegium Ramazzini; founding member of European Network of Scientists for Social and Environmental Responsibility (ENSSER); editor and co-author of Late Lessons from Early Warnings vols 1& 2 (EEA, 2001 & 2013)

Xiulin Gu, PhD
Specialist in Agricultural and Resource Economics; Professor, Yunnan University of Finance and Economics, Kunming, China

John Fagan, PhD
Director, Earth Open Source, London, UK

Michael Hansen, PhD
Senior Scientist, Consumers Union, Yonkers, NY, USA

Jack Heinemann, PhD
Professor, School of Biological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand

Angelika Hilbeck, PhD
Senior Scientist, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Institute of Integrative Biology IBZ, Zurich, Switzerland; Chair, European Network of Scientists for Social and Environmental Responsibility (ENSSER)

Stuart B. Hill, DPhil
Emeritus Professor, Foundation Chair of Social Ecology, School of Education, University of Western Sydney, Australia

Brendan Hoare, MAppSci
Founder and Director, Journal of Organic Systems; Chair, Organics Aotearoa, New Zealand.

Frieder Hofmann, Dipl Biol
Ökologiebüro, TIEM Integrated Environmental Monitoring GbR; Member and vice-chair of the VDI advisory board on Biodiversity, GMO Monitoring and Risk Management; Convenor of CEN TC 264 WG 29 on GMO-Monitoring, Bremen, Germany

C. Vyvyan Howard, MB, ChB, PhD, FRCPath
Medically qualified toxicopathologist; Professor of Bioimaging, Nano Systems Biology, Centre for Molecular Bioscience, University of Ulster, Northern Ireland

Philip H. Howard, PhD
Associate Professor of Community Sustainability, Michigan State University, USA

Carlo Leifert, PhD
Research Development Professor in Ecological Agriculture, School of Agriculture, Food and Rural Development, Newcastle University, UK

Les Levidow, PhD
Senior Research Fellow, Development Policy and Practice, Open University, UK 

Hartmut Meyer, PhD
Founding member of the European Network of Scientists for Social and Environmental Responsibility (ENSSER)

Erik Millstone, PhD
Professor of Science Policy, SPRU – Science and Technology Policy Research, University of Sussex, UK

Eva Novotny, PhD
University of Cambridge (retired); member, Scientists for Global Responsibility, UK

Devon G. Peña, PhD
University of Washington, Acequia Institute, USA

Arpad Pusztai, PhD
Biochemist, Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, formerly at the Rowett Research Institute, Aberdeen, Scotland

Leda Raptis, PhD
Professor, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada

David R. Schubert, PhD
Professor and Laboratory Head, Cellular Neurobiology Laboratory, Salk Institute for Biological Studies, San Diego, CA, USA

Stephanie Seneff, PhD
Senior research scientist, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA, USA

Margarida Silva, PhD
Professor, Environmental Studies, Portuguese Catholic University, Porto, Portugal

Av Singh, PhD, PAg
Organic and Rural Infrastructure specialist; Chair in Small Farm Sustainability, Just Us! Centre for Small Farms, Perennia, Nova Scotia, Canada

Ricarda A. Steinbrecher, PhD
Biologist and molecular geneticist; co-director, EcoNexus, Oxford, UK

Peter Stonehouse, PhD
Professor of Agricultural Economics and Business (retired), University of Guelph, Canada

Terje Traavik, Dr Philos, DVM
Special Consultant, GenØk-Centre for Biosafety, Norway; Professor Emeritus of Gene Ecology and Virology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Tromsø, Norway

Christian Vélot, PhD
Senior Lecturer in Molecular Genetics, University Paris Sud, France; Member of the Scientific Council of CRIIGEN

Thierry Vrain, PhD
Research Scientist, Agriculture Canada, Head of Biotechnology at the Summerland Research Centre (retired)

Allison Wilson, PhD
Science Director, The Bioscience Resource Project, Ithaca, NY, USA

Brian Wynne, PhD
Professor of Science Studies at Centre for the Study of Environmental Change, Lancaster University, UK, and at the ESRC Centre for Economic and Social Aspects of Genomics (CESAGen); Visiting Professor, Oslo University, Norway

Mae-Wan Ho, PhD Roster of Experts, Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety. Prigogine Medalist 2014. Director Institute of Science in Society, UK

Vilma Calderon, Clinical Dietician Clinical Dietitian that has a serious concern about GMO.

Caroline Amiel, PhD University of Caen,  France

Gustavo A. García López, PhD Postdoctoral Fellow, Institute of Environmental Sciences and Technology, Autonomous University of Barcelona (ICTA-UAB), Puerto Rico

Bertal H. Aktas, PhD, Assistant Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, US

Frank Rowson, B.Vet.Med. Physicians and Scientists for Global Responsibility (PSGR), New Zealand

Roman Andrzej Sniady, PhD Poland

Rosemary Anne Mason, MB ChB FRCA Consultant Anaesthetist (Rtd), Wales

José Ramón Olarieta, PhD Lecturer Soil Science, Universitat de Lleida, Spain

J. Gordon Wade, PhD Applied Mathematics Associate Professor of Mathematics and Statistics, Bowling Green State University Bowling Green, OH, USA

Yves Dupont, Pr. Emérite Anthropologie des risques Université de Caen, France

Jean-Michel Panoff, PhD Professor, Institute of Biology, University of Caen Basse-Normandie, France

Zrioual Saloua, PhD Immunologist, France

Robaire Beckwith, BSc, PhD UK

Sheldon Krimsky, PhD Lenore Stern Professor of Humanities and Social Sciences, Tufts University Adjunct Professor, Department of Public Health & Community Medicine, Tufts University Medical School Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, US

Susie O'Kelly, BSC Hons Psychology and nutrition, UK

Doug Gurian-Sherman, PhD, Plant Pathology, US

Sona Dubna, Dr, PhD, Honeybee diseases researcher, Czech Republic

Isabelle Chivilo, Doctor of Médecine, France

Cory Shafer, Psychotherapist, psychologist, MS PC#005347, US

Mustapha M Mustapha, MBBS, University of Pittsburgh, US

Vandana Verma, PhD, University of Michigan, Cardiovascular Pharmacology, PhD University of Cambridge, US

Malcolm Hooper, Professor Emeritus, PhD, B Pharm, MRIC, CChem Royal Society of Chemistry, Society for Medicines Research, British Pharmacological Society, UK

Vivienne Laval, PhD, Molecular Genetics, UK

Bonnie Camo, MD (Rtd), Italy

Steve Laval, DPhil Newcastle University, Molecular Genetics, UK

Eduardo C Schroder, PhD University of Puerto Rico, College of Agricultural Sci., Agroecology, Puerto Rico

Peter C. Charles, PhD Senior Staff Scientist at Innatrix, Inc/Animal models of human disease, bioinformatics, gene expression, molecular genetics, virology, immunology, neuropathology, anatomy and physiology/ ASM, AAAS, AHA, AHS, IHS, USA

Emma Haley, MSc Game Design DiGRA, Staffordshire University, UK

Roger C. Birosel, PhD no2gmophilippines, Chemical Society, Local Initiatives in Science & Technology, Filipino Inventors Society, Philippine Council for Sustainable Development, Philippines

Anthony C. Tweedale, MS, env'l studies R.I.S.K. Consultancy, Belgium

Louis Nadeau, PhD, Neurobiology, Canada

Piebiep Goufo, PhD Universidade de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Researcher, Portugal

Daniela Rambaldini, MSc, CNP, MH Institute of Traditional Medicine, Toronto, Ontario (current affiliation), Canada

Florian Brunier-Coulin, PhD Institut national de Recherche en Science et Technologies pour l'Environnement et l'Agriculture (IRSTEA), (French research institute in science and technologies for environment and agriculture), France

Pierre Alain Danis, PhD Institut national de Recherche en Science et Technologies pour l'Environnement et l'Agriculture (IRSTEA), (French research institute in science and technologies for environment and agriculture), France

Alban Sagouis, MSc Institut national de Recherche en Science et Technologies pour l'Environnement et l'Agriculture (IRSTEA), (French research institute in science and technologies for environment and agriculture), France

Francois Warlop, Agricultural Engineer, France

Vincent Detours, PhD IRIBHM - Université Libre de Bruxelles, Belgium

Lynne LoPresto, MS, RD Assistant Professor Dominican University of CA, Registered Dietitian - Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, US

Paul Easton, PhD NYU School of Medicine, US

Ena Valikov, Doctor of Veterinary Medicine Private practice clinician, US

Margaret Mellon, PhD, Molecular Biology, Science Policy Consultant

Paulo Yoshio Kageyama, PhD, Professor University of São Paulo, Ex Member of the National Technical Cmmission of Biosafety (2007-2012); Ex Director of Biodiversity Conservation of Ministry of Envrironment of Brazilian Government, Brazil

Yvan Rioux, Independent research biologist, Canada

Nadia El-Hage Scialabba, Ecologist Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Senior Officer (Environment and Sutainable Deelopment), Italy

Rosa Binimelis, PhD GenØk - Centre for Biosafety, Norway

Jorg Welcker, PhD Norwegian Polar Institute, Norway

Eva Sirinathsinghji, PhD Neurogenetics Researcher/Writer at Institute of Science in Society, PhD involved molecular biology, genetic engineering techniques to generate cell models of human disease, UK

Irina Ermakova, Professor Academy of geopolitical problems, Russia

Katarzyna Lisowska, PhD molecular biologist, Associate Professor in Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Gliwice; member of the Commision on Genetically Modified Organisms, Ministry of the Environment, Poland

Brigitta Kurenbach, PhD Researcher, Molecular Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Canterbury, New Zealand

Omar Arellano-Aguilar, PhD Unión de Científicos Comprometidos con la Sociedad A.C., Profesor de la Facultad de Ciencias, UNAM.

Richard Doherty, MD (Rtd.) Faculty Professor in the Departments of Pediatrics, Genetics, Radiation Biology & Biophysics at the Universtiy of Rochester School of Medicine, US

Miguel Lovera, PhD Universidad Católica de Asunción - CEIDRA, Paraguay

Romeo F. Quijano, MD Professor, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of the Philippines Manila, Philippines

Meriel Watts, PhD Physicians and Scientists for Global Responsibility, New Zealand

Keerthi Krutha, B.Tech Wildlife Information Liaison Development Society, Coimbatore, India

Jozef Adamczyk, Professor of Agronomy The head of Corn Breeding Dept. in HR Smolice Ltd, Poland

Patrick Dabert, Research Director Environmental Management and Biological Treatment of Waste Research Unit (GERE), National Research Institute of Science and Technology for Environment and Agriculture (IRSTEA), France

Marie-Elise Hanne, Physician - biologist Independent WHO, France

Chalani Rubesinghe, MSc Environmental Officer of Center for Environmental Justice, Technical Officer for the Asian lead paint elimination project conduct in association with IPEN and EU, Sri Lanka

Debal Deb, PhD Centre for Interdisciplinary Studies, Barrackpore, India

Manuel Ruiz Perez, PhD Profesor Titular, Dpto. Ecología, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Spain

Daniel Ferreira Holderbaum, MSc PhD Student in Plant Genetic Resources, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Brazil

John Stack, MSc in Applied Sciences (Environmental Science), Expertise is in the area of Integrated Constructed Wetlands and photo remediation, Ireland

Shideh Pouria, MBBS, BSc, MRCP (UK), PHD Vice President British Society for Ecological Medicine, Visiting Research Fellow King's College London, UK

Pablo Laguna, PhD El Colegio de Michoacán, México

Gerardo Otero, PhD in Sociology Professor of Sociology, Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, Canada

Alexander Wetten, MSc (Nutrition & Dietetics) Public Health Nutritionist, Department of Health NT, Australia

Jan Krzymanski, PhD, DSc (dr habil.) Professor Emeritus of Plant Breeding and Acclimatization Institute -biochemistry, genetics, oilseed plant breeding, Honorary member of GCIRC, KFGiHR of PAN (Polish Academy of Science), KZPRiRB and PSPO - Redactor of scientific annals "Rosliny Oleiste - Oilseed Crops", Poland

Jacek J. Nowak, PhD Contract Professor, Bogdan Jański Academy (statistics, food safety and sustainable development), Poland

Birgit Winkel, Master in Biology Risk assessor, Germany

Mohamed Habib, PhD Full Professor (Entomology, Biological Control & Agro-Ecology), University of Campinas, Brazil

Patricia Sosa, PhD Candidate Unversidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico

Chiara Pardini, Laurea in Scienze e Tecnologie Agrarie Dipende Ministero Politiche agricole, Italy

Marc Mathieu, PhD Inserm / Cellular and molecular biology, France

Donald R. Davis, PhD, UCLA 1966 (chemistry) Center for Sustaining Agriculture and Natural Resources, Washington State University at Pullman Retired from Biochemical Institute, The University of Texas at Austin, US

Peter Romilly, PhD Ecmetrika Consultancy & Research, Environmental Economics, member of Scientists for Global Responsibility, United Kingdom

Mateo Mier,  PhD Rural Development/ IDS, University of Sussex/ IUCN, Mexico

Terán Giménez Cacho, PhD Rural Development/ IDS, University of Sussex/ IUCN, Mexico

Marc Lenoir, PhD INSERM, France

Junho Lee, PhD University of Central Florida (Mathematics), US

Dae-Yeon Suh, PhD University of Regina, Canada

Minjung Cho, PhD  MFDS / Pharmacy, Republic of Korea

Resham Babu Amgai, MSc Scientist at Nepal Agricultural Research Council, Nepal

Hank Keeton, PhD CannaSafe Analitics, LLC, US

Tomás Enrique León Sicard, PhD, MSc, Agrólogo Profesor Titular Instituto de estudios Ambientales - Universidad Nacional de Colombia

Murray Thompson, BAppSci Environmental Health; Honors I Social Ecology University of Western Sydney, Australia

Robert Mann, PhD Senior lecturer in Biochemistry & in Environmental Studies (rtd), University of Auckland, New Zealand

Channa Jayasumana, MBBS Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Rajarata University of Sri Lanka

Horst Frohlich, PhD, senior lecturer (retired) Physical Chemistry, University Paris XI, France

Sisira Siribaddana, MBBS. MD FCCP FRCP Edin Professor of Medicine & Chair, Department of Medicine Dean Faculty of Medicine & Allied Sciences Rajarata University of Sri Lanka

Siniša Srečec, PhD Križevci College of Agriculture. College Proefessor. Research methodology and biometrics in biotechnology and food technology, Croatia

Henk A.Tennekes, PhD Consultant Toxicologist, Member of EUROTOX, Dutch, Swiss and British Societies of Toxicology, Society of Toxicologic Pathology, International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN)/Commission on Ecosystem Management (CEM), Netherlands

Ulrich E Loening, D.Phil retired molecular biologist and former Director of the Centre for Human Ecology, University of Edinburgh, United Kingdom

Mark Polle, PhD Fellow of the College of Family Physicians of Ontario, Canada

John Joseph Moore, D.Sc. (NUI) Professor of Botany,  University College, Dublin (retired), Professor at Dept. of Biology, UNZA (University of Zambia), Lusaka Research Area:  Plant Ecology, Zambia

P.C. Kesavan, PhD Former Professor of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, Currently Distinguished Fellow in M.S. Swaminathan Research Foundation, Taramani, Chennai, India

Mala Damayanthi Amarasinghe, PhD, MPlil, BSc Professor in Botany, department of Botany, University of Kelaniya, Kelaniya, Sri Lanka

Catherine Greenall, M.Phil, MRSC, C.Chem, C.Sci, MCIWEM, CWEM Royal Society of Chemistry,  Chartered Institute of Water & Environmental Management, UK

Vandana Shiva, PhD, Research Foundation for Science, Technology and Ecology, New Delhi, India

Marcus Taylor, PhD, Queen's University, Canada

Sujata Lakhani, PhD, Director of NGO working with environmental issues (WAPRED), India

Giuseppe Messi, agronomist, Italy

Sue Edwards, BSc Hons, MSc Plant Taxonomy, Ethiopia; Award Winner of the 12th Gothenburg Award for Sustainable Development, 2011; Previous member of European Association of Science Editors and Secretary of the African Association of Science Editors

Mira Shiva, MBBS, MD Medicine, Initiative for Health & Equity in Society, India

Elizabeth Bravo, PhD, RALLT / Universidad Politécnica Salesiana, Ecuador

Pierre Sartor, Doctor of Sciences; Member, Endocrine Society; Retired biologist, Nat Center of Scientific Research - CNRS, France

Klaus Oberauer, PhD, University of Zurich / Cognitive Psychology, Switzerland

Dereje Gebremichael Hussein, MSc, Environmental Science, Norway

Nick Scott-Samuel, PhD, Experimental Psychology, University of Bristol, UK

Deborah Apthorp, PhD, Australian National University - NHMRC Early Career Research Fellow, Canberra, Australia

Timothy David Dixon, PhD (Psychology), Bath Spa University, Bristol, UK

Marco Bertamini, PhD, University of Liverpool, UK

Alexis Makin, PhD, University of Liverpool, UK

Rebecca Lawson, PhD, University of Liverpool, UK

Lee de-Wit, BSc, MA, PhD, Post-doctoral Fellow, University of Leuven, Belgium

Joseph Austen, PhD, Psychology, University of Durham, UK

Alexander Baranoff, PhD, N. K. Koltsov Institute of Developmental Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia

Natalia Belova, PhD, Head of NGO "Future for everyone", Moscow, Russia

Alexander Varshavsky, DSc, Professor, Head of Laboratory, Central Economics and Mathematics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia

Victor Dragavtsev, professor of genetics, St Petersburg, Russia; academician of Russian Academy of Sciences; member of Russian Academy of Natural Sciences; member of the Royal Linnean Society, London; member of Agrarian Academies of Czech Republic and Slovakia and Mongolian Academy of Natural Sciences

Alexey V. Yablokov, PhD, Dr Biol, Professor, N. K. Koltzov Institute of Developmental Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia

Bob Abell, PhD, science education; Member/originator "Scientists Concerned and Informed on the Environment Speak Out", Kanata, Ont., Canada

Natalie Uomini, PhD, University of Liverpool, UK

Rémi Sharrock, Associate Professor, Telecom ParisTech / Institut Mines-Telecom, Paris, France

Sylvie Garin, medical information technician, Villeurbanne, France

André Henri, MSc, DSc, Retired, Musée royal de l'Afrique centrale (Tervuren, Belgium)/Universtité Catholique de Louvain (Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium)/ Soil zoology, Bossonnens, Switzerland

Pavel Rekunov, PhD, ergonomics and human behaviour, Moscow, Russia

Sarah Ann Wheeler, PhD, economics; Senior Research Fellow, University of South Australia, Australia

Suzana Podreka, BAppSci(Hons), environmental science, Canberra, Australia

Andrew Goldsworthy, PhD, Lecturer in Biology (ret'd), Imperial College London, UK

Valentin Zhelyaskov, PhD, former Professor in Physical Chemistry of Bio-polymers; published papers in the Biophysics field; worked for a Biomedical Research equipment company; Sarasota, USA

Kris Turlejski, VMD, PhD, Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology, head of laboratory. Neurobiology, brain development, behaviour. Member of EBBS and FENS; Warsaw, Poland

Diane Muratore Testa, PhD, Biomedical Engineering & Mathematics, Western New England University, Springfield, MA; Wilbraham, USA

Arie Taeke Veltman, MSc, retired electrical engineer, Groningen, Netherlands

Hanno Hammer, PhD, MSc, Dipl, MCL Leoben, Austria


References:

1. Elsevier (2013). Elsevier announces article retraction from Journal Food and Chemical Toxicology. 28 November. http://www.elsevier.com/...VfY74Y24.dpuf

2. Séralini GE et al (2012). Long term toxicity of a Roundup herbicide and a Roundup-tolerant genetically modified maize. Food and Chemical Toxicology 50(11): 4221-4231. The paper is available here: http://gmoseralini.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/GES-final-study-19.9.121.pdf

3. Hayes AW (2013). Letter to Professor GE Séralini. 19 Nov. Available at: http://www.gmwatch.org/files/Letter_AWHayes_GES.pdf

4. COPE (2013). Members: Food and Chemical Toxicology. http://publicationethics.org/members/food-and-chemical-toxicology

5. COPE (2009). Retraction guidelines. http://publicationethics.org/files/retraction guidelines.pdf

6. Hayes AW (2013). Letter to Professor GE Séralini. 19 Nov. Available at: http://www.gmwatch.org/files/Letter_AWHayes_GES.pdf

7. Hayes AW (2013). Food and Chemical Toxicology editor-in-chief, A. Wallace Hayes, publishes response to Letters to the Editors. 10 Dec. http://www.elsevier.com/about/press-releases/rese...

8. Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) (2009). OECD guideline no. 451 for the testing of chemicals: Carcinogenicity studies: Adopted 7 September 2009.

9. Séralini GE et al. (2013). Answers to critics: Why there is a long term toxicity due to NK603 Roundup-tolerant genetically modified maize and to a Roundup herbicide. Food and Chemical Toxicology 53: 461-468.

10. Hayes AW (2013). Food and Chemical Toxicology editor-in-chief, A. Wallace Hayes, publishes response to Letters to the Editors. 10 Dec. http://www.elsevier.com/...tTW2LCGq.dpuf

11. Hayes AW (2013). Ibid.

12. Hayes AW (2013). Letter to Professor GE Séralini. 19 Nov. Available at: http://www.gmwatch.org/files/Letter_AWHayes_GES.pdf

13. Hayes AW (2013). Food and Chemical Toxicology Editor-in-Chief, A. Wallace Hayes, Publishes Response to Letters to the Editors. 10 Dec. http://www.elsevier.com/...tTW2LCGq.dpuf

14. Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) (2009). OECD guideline no. 452 for the testing of chemicals: Chronic toxicity studies: Adopted 7 September 2009. http://bit.ly/LxJT1Z

15. COPE (2009). Retraction guidelines. http://publicationethics.org/files/retraction guidelines.pdf